Colorblind schemes don't really matter since those people don't participate in the "hey green, let's attack red" communication game regardless so might as well keep whatever scheme they currently have, even if a change were to be done for people with regular eyesight.
The closest you can get so far is F10 -> Settings -> Interface -> Team Colors -> Sync Colors With Team. This means you won't get the usual green reserved for you, so any teammates with this option also enabled will see everybody the same way (for example you might turn out darkblue, and other teammates with this options will see you as darkblue as well -- and as GoogleFrog
says enemies should already look the same for all teammates). It is fairly useless because it is off by default so approximately nobody has it enabled. There is no way to force others to enable this option, or to keep colours consistent across teams (so that you are sometimes on the red team).
Keep in mind both the "self is always green" and "teammates are always cold colours" are by design for teams (so you build up some sort of eye muscle memory without having to remember what colour you are every game) so don't expect these defaults to be changed, but other suggestions welcome. For example in an FFA it would be good to ensure various people see mutual enemies the same way and not necessarily stick to the same palette as for teams.